By Maurizio Gasperini
Phrases equivalent to "expanding Universe", "big bang", and "initial singularity", are these days a part of our universal language. the concept the Universe we realize this present day originated from a huge explosion (big bang) is now renowned and generally authorized, in any respect degrees, in glossy pop culture. yet what occurs to the Universe sooner than the massive bang? And would it not make any experience in any respect to invite this kind of query? in truth, contemporary growth in theoretical physics, and particularly in String idea, indicates solutions to the above questions, supplying us with mathematical instruments capable in precept to reconstruct the historical past of the Universe even for occasions earlier than the massive bang.
In the rising cosmological situation the Universe, on the epoch of the large bang, rather than being a "new born baby" was once truly a slightly "aged" creature in the midst of its almost certainly infinitely enduring evolution. the purpose of this e-book is to exhibit this photograph in non-technical language available additionally to non-specialists. the writer, himself a number one cosmologist, attracts realization to ongoing and destiny observations that would show relics of an period earlier than the massive bang.
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Extra info for The Universe Before the Big Bang: Cosmology and String Theory (Astronomers' Universe)
Within the physics of electromagnetic waves, on the other hand, the reddening of light is not a new phenomenon. It is well known, even in a non-relativistic context, that the frequency of a periodic signal emitted by a moving source is shifted towards the red or towards the blue, depending on whether the source is receding or approaching the observer, respectively, according to the well-known Doppler effect. The cosmological redshift described by the Hubble law can also be interpreted as a Doppler effect, associated with the fact that galaxies are mutually receding as a result of the expansion of 28 The Universe Before the Big Bang the Universe.
Besides predicting the future, the standard model allows us to go backwards in time through the history of the Universe, thus reconstructing its past. Using current observations one can compute, for instance, the temperature at which the energy densities of matter and radiation were of the same order. Since the radiation is in thermal equilibrium (as happens in an oven when it reaches its designated temperature), its energy density is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature, according to the well-known Stefan law of classical thermodynamics.
It should be stressed that the existence of a possible solution of the cosmological equations does not automatically guarantee that the corresponding scenario does actually occur in nature. In other words, we cannot conclude that, given the existence of our expanding Universe, a corresponding contracting Universe also exists; similarly, we cannot establish that for a given particle moving from left to right we would observe a particle moving from right to left. According to the theory this a possibility, but its occurrence is not mandatory.
The Universe Before the Big Bang: Cosmology and String Theory (Astronomers' Universe) by Maurizio Gasperini