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Since both a and c show independent DVs, the total diurnal variation (TDV) amplitude to be minimized as TDV 2 ¼ DVa2 þ DVc2 : ð2:50Þ Noted that using a random number for an erroneous calibration constant V’o that is normally distributed is an implicit weighting of the solution by the mean square error of the absolute Vo and MC calibration constant Vmc. Therefore, smaller deviations of V’o from Vo are more likely generated in the MC approximation. Thus the retrieval of AOD using Vmc should be found as close to Vo as possible.

Licor spectroradiometer, pryanometer). These instruments typically measure spectral or broadband solar radiation ranges from near-UV to near-IR wavelengths. As an example of these instruments, ASEQ LR-1 spectrometer is a portable, compact and robust spectral radiometer that measures light intensity over a specific portion of electromagnetic spectrum. The variable measured is the light’s intensity at a given wavelength that is invariant. 1 shows the specifications of the spectrometer. This instrument has a 3648-element CCD-array silicon photodiode detector J.

Since the retrieved AOD is validated against the reference AOD that is primarily dependent on the accuracy of measured irradiance, therefore the total uncertainty in AOD retrieval at distinct wavelengths is established from the error attributed to the measured irradiance plus the error resulted from the AOD comparison. AOD retrieval in mid-visible range (500 & 550 nm) has a total uncertainty *5 % but errors in the edge of the range (470–660 nm) are relatively larger at *9 % and *27 %. This further indicates the uncertainty of AOD measurement from the proposed algorithm is wavelength dependent by the most at near-infrared bands.

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Rheometry [engineering] by K. Walters

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