Download e-book for kindle: Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological by

ISBN-10: 9400770677

ISBN-13: 9789400770676

This quantity explores the interactions among organisms and their environments and the way this “entanglement” is a primary point of all lifestyles. It brings jointly the paintings and concepts of historians, philosophers, biologists, and social scientists, uniting a number new views, tools, and frameworks for studying and knowing the ways in which organisms and environments interact.

The quantity is geared up into 3 major sections: old views, contested versions, and rising frameworks. the 1st part explores the origins of the trendy suggestion of organism-environment interplay within the mid-nineteenth century and its improvement via later psychologists and anthropologists. within the moment part, quite a few debatable models—from mathematical representations of evolution to version organisms in scientific research—are mentioned and reframed in gentle of modern questions on the interaction among organisms and setting. The 3rd part investigates a number of new rules that experience the aptitude to reshape key elements of the organic and social sciences.

Populations of organisms evolve in line with altering environments; our bodies and minds rely on a wide range of conditions for his or her improvement; cultures create complicated relationships with the flora and fauna whilst they modify it irrevocably. The chapters during this quantity proportion a dedication to unraveling the mysteries of this entangled existence.

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Additional resources for Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences (History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences, Volume 4)

Example text

Helium-2, with one proton and one neutron, is called deuterium, or heavy hydrogen. Step 3: The high temperature and pressure can fuse deuterium (with its one proton and one neutron) together with another proton, forming helium-3 (two protons with one neutron). Step 4: Two helium-3 atoms (a total of four protons and two neutrons) are fused, forming a single helium-4 atom with a nucleus containing two protons and two neutrons. The by-product is two hydrogen atoms (each with a single proton nucleus).

These superhigh temperatures create all of the heavier elements from cobalt to uranium, as well as their various isotopes. Isotopes are versions of the same element that differ by the number of neutrons in their nuclei. Some isotopes—called radioisotopes—decay at a steady rate as they release excess neutrons over time. hypernovas and gamma-ray bUrsts Recently, scientists have classified a specific type of core collapse called a hypernova. Usually, a supernova is characterized by a star exploding as a result of thermal runaway or core collapse.

Instead, they spend their lives fusing hydrogen into helium and helium into carbon until the fusion reaction in their core simply peters out. If the universe were made only of these kinds of stars, space would contain mostly (if not entirely) hydrogen, helium, and carbon, a very limited set of blocks on which to build the panoply of life. All of the heavier elements in the universe are created only by the intense heat and energy of a supernova in a process known as supernova nucleosynthesis. Within a few seconds of a supernova explosion, so much energy is released that, for a brief time, the explosion generates temperatures much higher than those found in the core of any star.

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Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences (History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences, Volume 4)

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