By C. Mitcham
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of science, technology and ethics [Vol 4]
Donald Stokes (1995) resolves the dichotomy between research driven by purely scientific criteria and research responsive to societal needs by changing the single basic-versus-applied axis into a twodimensional plane, with one dimension indicating the degree to which research is guided by a desire to understand nature, and the other indicating the degree it is guided by practical considerations. This conceptual advance demonstrates that good science can be compatible with practical application, but does not point to specific policy-relevant steps.
26) For their part, scientists seek to demonstrate the value of research to the public, often through increasing skill in public relations and contracting with consultants to provide cost-benefit studies that show the positive benefits of research investments. With few exceptions, the result of such concerns has not been constructive change, but rather defense of the status quo. In 1994 the National Research Council (NRC) convened scientists and informed members of the broader community to begin a constructive dialogue on the changing environment for science.
For many years under growing budgets in the context of the Cold War, postwar science policy successfully and parsimoniously evaded this conflict. Given pressures for accountability and more return on federal spending, conflict is unavoidable. Why, more specifically, did postwar science policy remain largely unchallenged for a half century? From the point of view of society, it solved problems. First, science and technology were key contributors to victory in World War II. Infectious diseases were conquered.
Encyclopedia of science, technology and ethics [Vol 4] by C. Mitcham