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Additional info for Electronics For You - Projects and Ideas 2000
When water touches level B probe, pin 6 goes high and the output low. As a result, collector of transistor T10 goes high and the motor starts, if all other inputs of IC7 are also high. Thus, water level in the reservoir starts decreasing, and when it goes below level A, the output of IC6 goes high and the motor stops. Capacitors C20 and C21 act as filter capacitors. The value of C21 is selected such that it takes about 10 seconds to reach 2/3 Vcc potential at pin 6, thereby avoiding any erroneous start of the motor due to random fluctuations in the water level of the reservoir due to any reason.
For pnp transistor, the LEDglows on pressing switch S5 and goes off when it is released. This indicates that the transistor under test is good. e. without pressing switch S1 or S5. V. E lectronics For You readers are very much familiar with the functioning of timer 555 in astable mode of operation. Traditionally, if at all there was a need to keep the duty factor constant and change the frequency continuously, the method was to use a variable capacitor, rated in picofarads. But in that case, changing the frequency in tens of hertz range would become tedious.
Diodes D5 and D6 are CONSTRUCTION Note: Identically marked points in Figs 1 and 2 are interconnected Fig. 2: Part circuit of complete water level solution (contd. from Fig. 1) used as protection diodes. The under- and over-voltage cutoff section (Fig. 1). It comprises a dual comparator, two pnp transistors, and a few other discrete components. This part of the circuit is meant to stop the motor in case of a low mains voltage (typically 180V to 190V) or a voltage higher than a specified level (say 260V to 270V).
Electronics For You - Projects and Ideas 2000 by EFY Magazine