By P. W. Crane and N. Hiller (Auth.)
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Extra info for Electronics for Technicians
6. (b) B9A base—ECC 83 proceed with a clear explanation of the amplifying process, the characteristics of the triode need to be determined and presented in a suitable fashion. The relationship between any two of IA, K^i^and VGK may be obtained for several discrete values of the remaining quantity, giving, in all, three sets of characteristics (see Fig. 7). 7(c) the constant-current characteristics. All three characteristics give the same amount of information, but since this information is presented most suitably in the anode and mutual characteristics, these are the two in which we will be mainly interested when discussing the triode as an amplifier.
Type impurity, θ represents fixed ionized impurity atoms. + represents free majority holes. Minority carriers (electrons) are not shown Majority hole flow (-Λ ■ ■S-. Θ + Θ + Θ*1 Minority electron flow FIG. 23. f. on holes and electrons separately, it is convenient to group together extrinsic and intrinsic holes and to call them majority carriers. The majority carriers drift towards point B and minority carriers towards point A under the influence of the external battery voltage. Note that holes cannotflowin connecting leads and are neutralized by the electrons from the negative terminal as they arrive at point B.
Small change in IA (c) Amplification factor μ This is given by small change in V x A _ μ= 77-T—B . , A for constant IA. 3) Manufacturer's data sheets provide graphs of variation of each 35 VALVES AND SEMICONDUCTORS p V G K- 0 (mA) ) VGI(=-0-5V (a) VGK = -1-0V -2-5 -20 -1-5 - -10 50 -0 5 100 150 200 250 VAK(volts) VGK(volts) 200 (volts) 150 -2-5 -20 - -1-5 -10 -05 VGK(volts) FIG. 7. (a) Static anode characteristics, (b) Static mutual characteristics. (c) Constant-current characteristics parameter and grid bias voltage with anode current for fixed anode voltages of 100 V and 250 V.
Electronics for Technicians by P. W. Crane and N. Hiller (Auth.)