By Klaus Müllen, G. Wegner
This can be the 1st ebook written in this vital and swiftly increasing box. It deals researchers a chief source within which to seriously investigate the price, and positioned to exploit oligomers of their personal examine and improvement. The technique of this ebook is interdisciplinary.
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Extra resources for Electronic materials: the oligomer approach
In order to include stabilizing, solubilizing and electronically active substituents into the oligoyne frame, it was important to find preparative methods that would enable the coupling of acetylenes and some of their derivatives. Glaser  has observed the oxidative coupling of phenylacetylene in which the cuprous derivative formed in the first stage is oxidized to the diyne 43 (Scheme 9). This reaction has been applied to the symmetric coupling of a large number of acetylenes . The oxidation of acetylenes by cupric salts in pyridine was first accomplished by Eglington and Galbraith  (Scheme lo).
The color arises from the lowest 7r-electron transition of the conjugated polymer backbone, and the absorption maximum is near 600nm. However, insolubility and optical absorption can be used to monitor the degree of conversion as a function of reaction time. e. oxidized or reduced to give a polymeric salt of metal-like conductivity. Nevertheless, polydiacetylenes exhibit high charge carrier mobilities (pe z lo3cm2V-' s-I) in the 16 1 Hydroccirbon Oligoniers 58 59 60 Scheme 15. Diethynyl-rnethanofullerene 58 and 60, bis(butadiyny1)methanofullerene A6, and butadiynyl-linked 'dirneric' rnethanofullerene 67.
Synthetic routes leading to PPP-type structures. Many activities have been directed towards soluble, well-defined oligomers that allow optimization of the polymer-forming reactions and that provide an analysis of physical properties as a function of chain length. The first series of soluble oligo(ppheny1ene)s 108 were synthesized by Kern and Wirth  and shortly afterwards by Heitz and Ulrich  using alkyl substitution in each repeat unit (Scheme 28). Various synthetic methods, like the Ullmann coupling, the addition of an organometallic intermediate 100 to a cyclic diketone 101 to yield a dihydro precursor 103, and the oxidative coupling of lithium aryls by CuC12, have been investigated [81, 821.
Electronic materials: the oligomer approach by Klaus Müllen, G. Wegner