By S. J. Sangwine (auth.)
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Extra resources for Electronic Components and Technology
The electronic behaviour of circuit elements or devices is also affected by size reduction or scaling, so that changes in circuit design are needed as devices become smaller. The power density within a chip also increases as more and more devices are packed onto a chip and removal of heat becomes a problem. The earliest ICs contained only a few tens of transistors or less than ten logic gates and are now known as small-scale integration or SSI circuits. Later circuits, before the development of microprocessors, are known as medium-scale or MSI circuits and contain up to 100 logic gates or several hundred transistors.
More recent designs use digital displays and push-button controls for setting the temperature and are also designed from the start to have no discrete wiring and to be easily assembled, so they do not show the advantages of modern interconnection techniques as well as the design illustrated. The Mark 1 version of the controller, shown in Fig. 11, has two PCBs. The larger board includes the input and output terminals at the rear edge, a transformer and power supply, temperature control circuits and the main output circuit.
The most expensive option to set-up (full custom design) produces the lowest-cost ICs, but only if hundreds of thousands of ICs are to be made. Conversely, the cheaper techniques such as gate arrays are much less expensive to set up, but produce more expensive chips. For small production runs of perhaps 10000 ICs, however, they may offer the cheapest total cost. Full-custom integrated circuits The most expensive form of ASIC is the full-custom integrated circuit. These are designed and manufactured in exactly the same way as standard ICs.
Electronic Components and Technology by S. J. Sangwine (auth.)