By Jennifer Rietbergen-McCracken, Hussein Abaza
There's now key empirical proof of the ability of monetary tools in coping with the surroundings. This quantity, the spouse to Environmental Valuation, offers the result of a three-year collaborative attempt concerning learn associations in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin the USA, coordinated via the United countries surroundings Programme (UNEP).Authoritative case stories reveal the variety of environmental difficulties to which various fiscal tools could be utilized - air and water pollutants, packaging, deforestation, over-grazing, natural world. additionally they exhibit what's wanted for them to paintings effectively and the pitfalls to prevent in introducing them, delivering useful counsel for destiny functions. Written to be obtainable to non-economists, this e-book bargains unrivalled resource fabric for college kids and educational economists in addition to for pros operating with financial instruments.Published in organization with the United countries atmosphere Programme
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Extra info for Economic Instruments for Environmental Management: A Worldwide Compendium of Case Studies
Opschoor, J B and Vos, H (1989) Economic Instruments for Environmental Protection. OECD, Paris. Simpson, L D (1994) Are Water ‘Markets’ a Viable Option? Finance and Development June 1994: 30-32, The World Bank, Washington, DC. SMEC, WLPG, SGAB (1991) The Botswana National Water Master Plan (vls 1-12). Department of Water Affairs, Gaborone. United Nations (1992) Report of the UN Conference on Environment and Development. Rio de Janeiro. Water Utilities Corporation, several years’ Annual Reports, Gaborone.
The concessionaires receive an in~irectsubsidy from the govern ecause the costsof ~ ~ n a g the ~ nresource g and monitori~gthe operationsare not covered by stumpa~e fees. These low stumpagefees have also been responsible for an increased fire hazard in the forest (from the harvested trees left on the forest floor) and exploitative, rather than conservative, harvesting methods (ie creaming off the biggest healthiest trees instead of salvaging the damaged ones). As the NFS stated,fire damage has increased significantly in the logging areas as significant amounts of harvesting residues are left near living trees and these residues then ignite in subsequent fire seasons.
Forests in Africa, as on all other continents, contribute to food security by providing hunting and gathering opportunities, and provide energy from fuelwood, as well as providing environmental protection through watershedstabilization,soilprotectionandcarbonsequestration. While the extent of deforestation in this region as a whole is estimated at 1 per cent, below the world average, some partsof the region have alarming deforestation rates. It is estimated, for example, that 75 per cent of Western African forests have been lost (Sharma et al, 1994).
Economic Instruments for Environmental Management: A Worldwide Compendium of Case Studies by Jennifer Rietbergen-McCracken, Hussein Abaza