By J. E. Fisher, H. B. Gatland and P. Hammond (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Devices and Amplifier Design. Electronics from Theory Into Practice
It has the advantage that only one capacitor is used and consequently introduces only one additional time constant. This is a very important consideration in the case of feedback amplifiers. The form of biasing can be applied over more than one stage, for amplifiers that have overall signal inversion, as shown in Fig. 30. ov cc oov Fig. 30. A three-stage amplifier with feedback stabilization. If the collector voltage of the output transistor is half Vcc, the stabilization factor is K = 2. 35 THE SEMICONDUCTOR Emitter resistor stabilization This method is generally used with a voltage dividing network to provide the base voltage.
Thin-based transistors such as surface barrier types have voltage limitations due to punch through, typically having punch-through values of VPT = -5V. (b) Zener breakdown This occurs when the number of added impurities is high (the greater the doping level the lower the resistivity). Application of reverse bias can cause the valence band of the p material to overlap the conduction band of the n material, as in Fig. 12 for the tunnel diode, and the junction will break down. This is usually of no significance in transistors having low doping levels, but the phenomenon is usefully employed in Zener and tunnel diodes.
1b, which can be expressed as J = 7„exp(-|^), where Ico is the reverse saturation current, k is Boltzmann's constant, e the electron charge, and T the absolute temperature. At normal temperature — = 25mV. -%-Çf)/'-»*«n,. Thus re is 25 il if JE = 1 mA. THE 31 SEMICONDUCTOR An approximation for the short-circuit input resistance is 25hfe Ω. 15. For operation, the emitter-base junction must be forward biased and base current will flow. Other devices, such as the field effect transistor or the thermionic valve, normally have the input element reverse biased and, ideally, zero current flows.
Devices and Amplifier Design. Electronics from Theory Into Practice by J. E. Fisher, H. B. Gatland and P. Hammond (Auth.)