By Erich Joos
A exact description of the phenomena that come up from the interplay among quantum structures and their atmosphere. end result of the novel personality of the process mentioned, the ebook addresses scientists from all fields of physics and similar disciplines in addition to scholars of physics.
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Extra info for Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory
Since the formalism of master equations can also be applied to the process of decoherence, it will be discussed in detail in Chap. 7. When decoherence is caused by scattering of particles, the arrow of time enters in the form of a Sommerfeld radiation condition. Another type of coarse graining (usually applied in addition to "locality" that characterizes open systems) has recently been introduced in connection with a concept of "events", which are thereby considered as the dynamical elements to which quantum probability applies (Griffiths 1984, Gell-Mann and Hartle 1990, Omnes 1992, 1995, Hartle 1993).
Therefore, the ensemble of all "quantum trajectories" must exactly reproduce the conventionally calculated density matrix (which in most cases follows a Lindblad master equation) by construction. This is in line with the well-known fact that quantum correlations cannot be used to transmit signals. None of these stochastic models can be distinguished from standard quantum theory by local measurements. On the other hand, they suffer from the problem that the assignment of states (even if these remain unknown) to a subsystem is incompatible with standard quantum theory, in the same sense as assigning a certain spin state to a particle in a two-particle singlet state - an assumption proved wrong in EPR-experiments.
Such a view is indicated in early formulations by Heisenberg, seems to have been favoured by von Neumann, was later elaborated upon by London and Bauer (1939), and was again supported by Wigner (1962), among others. g. Wigner 1962), although it may be consistent with the formalism only when used with respect to one final observer, that is, in a strictly subjective sense (Zeh 1971). The "indivisible chain between observer and observed" is physically represented by a complex interacting medium, or a chain of intermediate systems Ix(i»), symbolically written within the quantum formalism as 2.
Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory by Erich Joos