By Michael Thomas
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Extra info for Contemporary Computer-Assisted Language Learning
Brown, J. D. (1997). Computers in language testing: Present research and some future directions. Language Learning and Technology, 1(1), 44–59. Garrison, D. , & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105. Kehrwald, B. (2008). Understanding social presence in text-based online learning environments. Distance Education, 29(1), 89. — (2010). Being online: Social presence and subjectivity in online learning.
The 1970s saw the production of many other smaller software development projects on mainframes and minicomputers in the United States. These projects included development of authoring tools to create exercises such as CALIS (Hussein, Phelps & Bessent, 1980) and Dasher (Pusack & Otto, 1983–2010) – as well as packaged exercises and tutorials, such as DECU/TUCO (Taylor, 1987), and the Course in Medical and Technical Terminology, focusing on instruction in medical and scientiﬁc terms derived from Greek and Latin (Tebben, 1979).
With their 48K of memory and no easily accessible storage for programs and data (ﬂoppy or hard disk), early microcomputers seemed more like toys than serious computers. Nevertheless, they quickly grew into the much cheaper platform of choice with graphics capabilities that allowed graphic, animation and foreign character entry and display not available from standard mainframe systems. When the internet and World Wide Web gained traction, developers had to shift gears again, facing problems such as a new generation of underdeveloped development tools and the loss of the ability to control and deliver media with the precision possible with older technologies such as videodisc.
Contemporary Computer-Assisted Language Learning by Michael Thomas