By S C Siekierski, J Burgess
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Additional info for Concise Chemistry of the Elements
79) a salt-like compound Cst Au·-. ~ ::.. 5 0 10 0 Fig. Na ~A K 20 l Rb 30 Fr Cs 40 50 60 70 z 80 90 Depemknce or Pauling elel:tronegalivities Oil atomic number, Z. In generaL highly electronegati\"e elements react eagerly with highly electropositive elements and vice versa. Bonding then shows ionic character. Elements with intermediate electronegativity react readily with both more and less electronegative elements, and bonding is then mainly covalent. 5 HARDNESS AND SOFTNESS According to Mullikan's definition the mean of the ionization energy and electron affinity gives the electronegali\"ity of an atom in a molecule.
D "'\t° DDl\f I D ~[l[~jSb I ~J I Cs L D a D Cd D Kr D Pb/ % /Bi /° Do Xesa -1 D Sr D -2 Ca -3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 z Fig. ·l, on the atomic number, Z. 70 80 90 37 ElectronegatMty Sec. 4 ELECTRONEGATIVITY x, According to one qualitati\"e definition electronegativity, is the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons. There are several methods to assign numerical estimates to electronegati\·ities. Each of these methods is based on a different quantitative approach and emphasises a different aspect of electronegativity.
The van der Waals radius corresponds with very low radial probability density. The rw values are best obtained from X-X contact distances in a solid phase formed by molecules containing chemically bonded X atoms. As seen in Fig. 8. r"" increases with increasing radius of the atom and is larger than R. Comparison of the data in Figs. 5 . 8 shows that overall the \'arious radii decrease in the follo\\·ing order: 1\,. id for elements which form metallic phases and cations. In the case of elements which form anions.
Concise Chemistry of the Elements by S C Siekierski, J Burgess