By Professor Carl Wellman
Mr. Wellman’s hugely unique contribution to the rather new box of justification in ethics includes characterizing the several ways that moral statements might be challenged and displaying how every one kind of problem might be met via a suitable reaction, permitting moderate males to adequately speak about or contemplate moral concerns. In constructing his exact, systematic, method of ethics, Mr. Wellman has, first, carefully reviewed and refuted the most arguments for the view of the character of all reasoning as deductive and, moment, convincingly provided arguments for the life of nondeductive evidences in ethics. Mr. Wellman’s extensive definition of reasoning and his rejection of the id of justification with reasoning unearths new dimensions of justification with a purpose to have broad implications in different components of human hypothesis.
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Additional resources for Challenge and Response: Justification in Ethics
So be it. One of the tests of any epistemological theory is that its consequences for ethics should be true. If the hypothesis that all a priori principles are analytic is disconfirmed in ethics, then the only reasonable thing to do is to reject that epistemological dogma. I am not quite going back to the Kantian synthetic a priori, however. Kant thought that ethical principles, if genuine, must be a priori, based upon reason rather than experience. And for him the two marks of the genuinely a priori are universality and necessity.
The operational procedure is designed to bring about these conditions; the statement describing the actual results is known by observation. Since the only way of knowing what actually happens at any time and place is by experience, only observable results count in science. At the heart of a scientific experiment is this confrontation of the predicted result with the actual result, this checking of what the experimenter thought would happen against the facts of the case. But the thought experimenter does not measure his thinking against the actual case, for he usually has only a possible case in mind and it exists only in his mind.
Although his thinking must be actual, the case of which he is thinking may be merely possible. He must produce this test case in his mind, but this does not imply that he must make it actual. Therefore in the most basic sense he does not actually produce the test case at all; he merely thinks about what it would be like if he, or anyone else, were to produce it. In a laboratory experiment, however, the experimenter must actually bring about some result. The experimenter must produce his test case in the full sense of making it actual, bringing it about, causing it to exist.
Challenge and Response: Justification in Ethics by Professor Carl Wellman