By David Kealey, P J Haines
Rapid Notes titles specialise in center info and are designed to aid undergraduate scholars come to grips with a subject matter quick and easily.Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry offers scholars with a radical comprehension of analytical chemistry and its purposes. This publication helps the educational of rules and perform of analytical strategies. It additionally comprises analytical suggestions accepted in laboratories this day.
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Additional resources for BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry
The additional sources can be divided into two types: 40 Section B – Assessment of data ● additional random effects, described as random-effect factors; ● speciﬁc effects from determinate sources, described as controlled or ﬁxedeffect factors. Where one additional effect may be present, a one-way ANOVA is used, whilst for two additional effects, two-way ANOVA is appropriate. Both involve much lengthier calculations than the simpler tests of signiﬁcance, but facilities for these are available with computer packages such as Microsoft Excel and Minitab.
22 Absolute and relative errors Section B – Assessment of data The absolute error, EA, in a measurement or result, xM, is given by the equation EA = xM - xT where xT is the true or accepted value. Examples are shown in Figure 1 where a 200 mg aspirin standard has been analyzed a number of times. The absolute errors range from -4 mg to +10 mg. The relative error, ER, in a measurement or result, xM, is given by the equation ER = (xM - xT)/xT Often, ER is expressed as a percentage relative error, 100ER.
However, measurement errors can be minimized and some types eliminated altogether by careful experimental design and control. Their effects can be assessed by the application of statistical methods of data analysis and chemometrics (Topic B5). Gross errors may arise from faulty equipment or bad laboratory practice; proper equipment maintenance and appropriate training and supervision of personnel should eliminate these. Nevertheless, whether it is reading a burette or thermometer, weighing a sample or timing events, or monitoring an electrical signal or liquid ﬂow, there will always be inherent variations in the measured parameter if readings are repeated a number of times under the same conditions.
BIOS Instant Notes in Analytical Chemistry by David Kealey, P J Haines