By E. D. Eanes, A. S. Posner (auth.), Harald Schraer (eds.)
The deposition of calcium-containing salts is a common phenomenon in either the plant and animal kingdoms. Its prevalence indicates a generalized organic variation to environments wealthy in calcium. certainly, the Archaean ocean used to be wealthy in calcium carbonate, and lines of historic organisms were present in lime stones envisioned to be approximately 2. 7 billion years outdated. the elemental nature of organic calcification makes it a topic of curiosity not just to the coed of calcium metabolism and skeletal body structure, but additionally to biologists usually. As in lots of parts of organic technology contemporary growth during this box has been fast, and no test used to be made the following to hide all of the organic structures within which calcifica tion is a vital side of the organisms' approach to operation. Calcification is approached during this quantity on the degrees of the mobile websites and molecular mechan isms which are all for this approach. The ultrastructural and chemical beneficial properties of the cells and their items that are linked to calcification are empha sized in different chapters. The editor, in inviting contributions from authors, in tended that jointly the chapters may still express a feeling of the ever-present and crucial nature of the position of calcification in different phyla of the plant and animal kingdoms. The researchers have been biochemists, actual chemists, telephone biologists and physiologists; a few represented medication and dentistry; all have been drawn to calcification.
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Additional info for Biological Calcification: Cellular and Molecular Aspects
1959. Molecular biology of mineralized tissues with particular reference to bone. Revs. , 31: 359. GREENAWALT, J. , C. S. ROSSI, and A. L. LEHNINGER. 1964. Effect of active accumulation of calcium and phosphate ions on the structure of rat liver mitochondria. J. , 23:21-38. GUTMAN, A. , and T. F. Yu. 1950. A concept of the role of enzymes in endochondral calcification. In Metabolic Interrelations. Reifenstein, E. , ed. New York, Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, pp. 167-190. HANCOX, N. , and B. BOOTHROYD.
The general impression is that crystals appear in the region corresponding to the area where polar side chains are most concentrated (Glimcher, 1960). However, recently it has been suggested that the mineral appears in pores in the collagen fibers, formed by the stacking of collagen molecules during fibriIIogenesis (Hodge and Petruska, 1963). The first experimental evidence implicating specific components in the matrix as inducers or accelerators of the mineral precipitation came from Sobel's (1952) laboratory.
Piez (1962) studied human enamel protein from unerupted third molars which had been preserved by freezing, from unerupted third molars which has been preserved in formaldehyde; and from randomly extracted (erupted) teeth. 5, enamel from extracted (erupted) teeth yielded no protein either soluble or insoluble, and it was assumed that the protein solubilized during the decalcification procedures was of low molecular weight which resulted in its loss during dialysis to remove the chelating agent. Essentially similar results were obtained in attempts to isolate enamel protein from unerupted third molars preserved by freezing.
Biological Calcification: Cellular and Molecular Aspects by E. D. Eanes, A. S. Posner (auth.), Harald Schraer (eds.)