Marcel Florink (Auth.)'s Biochemical Evolution PDF

By Marcel Florink (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0123955211

ISBN-13: 9780123955210

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By the action of the arginase enzyme, a molecule of urea is split off from arginine whereby ornithine is reclaimed and becomes again the starting point of the cycle. The cycle may be summed up in the following scheme: Urea< χ ^ > Ornithine + H 20 (Arginase) - Arginine 1^ H 20 + C02 + NH3 Citrulline - H 20 J + NH3 Briefly, then, the protein metabolism of mammals has ammonia and urea as its ultimate products, the urea being in great preponderance. For this reason mammals are said to be ureotelic.

It is also possible to demonstrate in the nerve ganglion-neural gland complex of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis three active principles of the posterior hypophysis of vertebrates: the pressure, the melanophore dilating and oxytocic factors (Bacq and Florkin, 6). , 165) which act on the external genital organs of mammals. Substances with similar activity are found in different invertebrates. Without doubt we are dealing here with growth hormones upon which evolution has conferred a new role. The complex endocrine relations between the organs of higher vertebrates are not different from the particular instances where metabolic products of one organ may exert an influence upon the function of another organ.

However, intracellular digestion also proceeds in the diverticula. The salivary glands, on the other hand, secrete an amylase. In the pulmonates, such as the snail, the hydrolytic processes are practically entirely extracellular and only the hydrolysis of protein is intracellular. In the cephalopods, on the other hand, digestion is exclu­ sively extracellular, the intracellular digestion having completely dis­ appeared (Romijn, 232). D. PROTEIN METABOLISM The metabolism of amino acids has been best studied in mammals, and they will be considered first.

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Biochemical Evolution by Marcel Florink (Auth.)

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