By Rée, Paul; Small, Robin; Rée, Paul; Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm
This ebook comprises the 1st English translations of "The starting place of the ethical Sensations" and "Psychological Observations", the 2 most crucial works through the German thinker Paul Re. those essays current Re's ethical philosophy, which encouraged the tips of his shut good friend Friedrich Nietzsche significantly. Nietzsche students have usually incorrectly attributed to him arguments and ideas which are Re's and feature didn't notice responses to Re's works in Nietzsche's writings. Re's pondering mixed strands: a pessimistic notion of human nature, awarded within the French moralists' aphoristic kind that may develop into a mainstay of Nietzsche's personal writings, and a concept of morality derived from Darwin's idea of traditional choice. Re's ethical Darwinism used to be a critical issue prompting Nietzsche to jot down "On the family tree of Morals" and the foundation for a lot of trendy "evolutionary ethics". In an illuminating serious creation, Robin Small examines Re's existence and paintings, finding his software of evolutionary suggestions to morality inside of a broader heritage of Darwinism whereas exploring Re's theoretical and private dating with Nietzsche. In putting Nietzsche in his highbrow and social context, Small profoundly demanding situations the parable of Nietzsche as a solitary philosopher
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32. , Spencer, The Data of Ethics, 190–91. 33. Dennett, Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, 466. 34. Darwin, Works, 21:130. 35. , 21:79. 36. , 21:112. 37. , 21:123. 38. , 21:124. 39. , 21:115. 40. , 21:123. 41. , 21:137. 42. , 21:127–28. 43. , 22:636. 44. , 21:118. 45. , 21:129. 46. Rée, Entstehung des Gewissens, 219. 47. Darwin, Works, 21:137. 48. , 22:643. 49. , 15:55–56. 50. Even the proportion of altruists in the overall population may increase, surprising though this may seem, given their disadvantage within each particular group.
This argument admits group selection as a explanatory principle alongside individual selection—yet only under certain circumstances. For one thing, it presupposes strong rivalry between different groups. A universal peace would allow selﬁshness to reassert itself within each of these groups, with disastrous consequences, unless held in check by the kinds of substitutes for altruism that Rée describes. The argument also implies a strict limitation of altruism to members of one’s own tribe: in fact, unthinking hostility toward outsiders will be favored by the same process of group selection.
The person who most consistently avoided such temptations in applying the Darwinian theory of evolution to the “moral sense” was, as we noted earlier, Charles Darwin. pmd 33 8/2/12, 2:33 PM xxxiv translator’s introduction nietzsche’s path from réealism to anti-réealism Paul Rée’s relation to Friedrich Nietzsche has often been discussed by commentators. One common view is that Rée exerted a temporary but beneﬁcial inﬂuence by separating Nietzsche from Schopenhauerian metaphysics and introducing him to scientiﬁc rationalism, as well as inspiring a plainer and more disciplined mode of expression.
Basic writings by Rée, Paul; Small, Robin; Rée, Paul; Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm