By Hans Pauly
This booklet completes the actual foundations and experimental suggestions defined in quantity 1 with an up-to-date assessment of the accent apparatus critical in molecular beam experiments. It extends the topic to cluster beams and beams of hyperthermal and subthermal energies. As in quantity 1, a unique attempt is made to stipulate the actual foundations of many of the experimental strategies. therefore this e-book is meant not just as a reference ordinary for researchers within the box, but additionally to convey the flavour of present molecular beam examine to complicated undergraduates and graduate scholars and to allow them to achieve a high-quality history within the box and its technique.
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Extra info for Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams II: Cluster Beams, Fast and Slow Beams, Accessory Equipment and Applications
1997)]. The high energy, the polarity of the electrodes, and the pressure dependence of the fast beam signal indicate that charge exchange processes play an important rolt: in the fast neutral particle production. 20 shows a schematic drawing of a glow discharge source, which bas been developed to investigate and to etch insulating solid surfaces [Kuwano and Nagai (1985), Shimokawa (1992), Shimokawa and Kuwano (1994)]. It can be used for gaseous substances and consists essentially of a tubular cathode made of graphite (70 mm long, 40 mm 0), closed at its rear end by a graphite plate ending in a gas supply tube.
11) [Borisov et al. (1996)]. If more than one electron plays an active role in the neutralization process, the charge transfer is classified as an Auger transition [Hagstrum (1977), Almulhem (1997)]. In this case, a metal electron is captured into a low-lying state of the incident ion and the energy associated with this capture is used to excite a metal electron beyond the Fermi limit (see (3) in Fig. 11). Further channels for the charge exchange process are the excitation of collective modes or the excitation of plasmons during the electron-capture process [Lorente and Monreal (1997)], as well as radiative neutralization (see (1) in Fig.
A source for groundstate O atoms, developed for generating beams with energies between 2 and 100 e V and which employs a multipass ce li, is schematically shown in Fig. 10 [Orient et al. (1990), (1992)]. Electrons emitted from a hot tungsten filament (1) are extracted at high energies and then decelerated by an electron optics (2) to a fmal energy of 8 eV ata gas nozzle (3). NO molecules effusing from this nozzle dissociatively attach to form o-eP) ions. Electrons and ions are confmed by a strong (6 T), uniform solenoidal magnetic field (11) and the latter are accelerated to the desired fmal energy.
Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams II: Cluster Beams, Fast and Slow Beams, Accessory Equipment and Applications by Hans Pauly