By J. Zornoza (auth.), Lucio Luciani MD, Francesco Piscioli MD (eds.)
After historic creation, the aspiration approach and imaging modalities are defined. Thereafter, using aspiration cytology within the analysis and customarily within the sta- ging of urologic cancers is on nonetheless no longer popular appli- cations of the approach within the staging of a few organs (bladder, adrenals, penis, testis and secondary ureteral strictures) are suggested.
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Additional resources for Aspiration Cytology in the Staging of Urological Cancer: Clinical, Pathological and Radiological Bases
The remaining aspiration biopsies have been performed on solid renal masses. Seven cases were reported as renal cell carcinoma and six have been confirmed either by subsequent resection or clinical features of the follow-up. One case was found to be a large adenocarcinoma of the caecum with extensive retroperitoneal growth involving the lower pole of one kidney. Two additional diagnoses of malignant tumour were considered metastatic. Subsequent clinical features or prior tissue diagnoses of the primary lesion confirmed the aspiration biopsy findings.
For these nodes escape visualisation. The diagnostic criteria for nodal metastases in carcinoma of the bladder are the same as those described earlier. The single most reliable criterion is a filling defect in a node not traversed by lymphatics (Fig. 7) . When a node is completely replaced. the lymphatics may be displaced or obstructed (Fig. 8). Lymphatic obstruction with or without col- 38 Aspiration Cytology in the Staging of Urological Cancer Fig. 6. Lymphatics of the bladder. I, The collecting trunks of the trigone; 2, the collecting trunks of the posterior wall; 3; the collecting trunks of the anterior wall.
One hundred and fifty-seven separate biopsies have been performed on 150 patients. 1 documents the results. There have been 48 diagnoses of cancer, corroborated clinically in follow-up or by a surgical procedure that included obtaining tissue demonstrating prostatic carcinoma. Two cases are currently carried as false positives and there are four false negative cases documented by follow-up tissue studies. Seven aspirates were considered unsatisfactory, while seven additional cases were reported as satisfactory but with smears containing limited numbers of cells.
Aspiration Cytology in the Staging of Urological Cancer: Clinical, Pathological and Radiological Bases by J. Zornoza (auth.), Lucio Luciani MD, Francesco Piscioli MD (eds.)