By Claus Nielsen
Animal Evolution presents a finished research of the evolutionary interrelationships and myriad range of the Animal state. It experiences the classical, morphological info from constitution and embryology, in addition to the recent information won from experiences utilizing immune stainings of nerves and muscle mass and blastomere markings which makes it attainable to stick with the destiny of unmarried blastomeres all of the technique to early organogenesis. till lately, the knowledge from analyses of gene sequences has tended to provide myriads of relatively diverging bushes. in spite of the fact that, the most recent iteration of molecular tools, utilizing many genes, expressed series tags, or even complete genomes, has introduced a brand new balance to the sector. For the 1st time this publication brings jointly the data from those different fields, and demonstrates that it really is certainly now attainable to construct a phylogenetic tree from a mixture of either morphology and gene sequences.
This completely revised 3rd version of Animal Evolution brings the topic totally modern, specifically in mild of the newest advances in molecular thoughts. The ebook is generously illustrated all through with finely particular line drawings and transparent diagrams, a lot of them new.
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Extra resources for Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla (3rd Edition)
Nielsen, C. 2008. Six major steps in animal evolution—are we derived sponge larvae? Evol. Dev. 10: 241–257. J. and Pisani, D. 2009. Phylogenetic-signal dissection of nuclear housekeeping genes supports the paraphyly of sponges and the monophyly of Eumetazoa. Mol. Biol. Evol. 26: 2261–2274. , et al. 2010. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity. Nature 466: 720–727. 9 Phylum Homoscleromorpha This small phylum, containing about 60 living species of marine ‘sponges’, has until recently been placed within the Demospongiae, but both morphological and molecular studies now indicate that it is a separate phylum, the sister group of the eumetazoans, although some studies indicate the traditional monophyletic Porifera (Philippe et al.
2001. Sponge paraphyly and the origin of the Metazoa. J. Evol. Biol. 14: 171–179. , BouryEsnault, N. and Vacelet, J. 1996. Sponge phylogeny, animal monophyly, and the origin of the nervous system: 18S rRNA evidence. Can. J. Zool. 74: 2031–2045. Dacks, J. J. 1999. The first sexual lineage and the relevance of facultative sex. J. Mol. Evol. 48: 779–783. , Larroux, C. S. 2009. Early evolution of metazoan transcription factors. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 19: 591–599. Hadzi, J. 1953. An attempt to reconstruct the system of animal classification.
Larval and adult cnidarians and larval stages of many ‘higher’ metazoans are of a gastrula-like structure, and this led Haeckel (1874) to propose that all metazoans had evolved from a two-layered ancestor. The gastraea theory was seen as a causative explanation for the similarities in organization and embryology observed among the metazoans. He included the poriferans in his Metazoa or Gastraeozoa, interpreting the inner cells of the sponges as endoderm, but it is now generally accepted that the sponges do not have a gut, and therefore no endoderm (Ereskovsky and Dondua 2006).
Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla (3rd Edition) by Claus Nielsen