By Anthony J.F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Sean B. Carroll, John Doebley
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Additional info for An Introduction to Genetic Analysis
This arrow symbolizes protein synthesis, or the translation of the information in the specific sequence of bases in the mRNA into the sequence of amino acids that compose a protein. Proteins are the workhorses of cells, comprising enzymes, structural components of the cell, and molecules for cell signaling. The process of translation takes place at the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of each cell. In Chapter 9, you will learn how the genetic code is written in three-letter words called codons. A codon is a set of three consecutive nucleotides in the mRNA that specifies an amino acid in a protein.
Inherited the same version of a defective gene from their common ancestor and that they will both pass on this defective gene to their children. Children with one copy of a defective gene are often normal, but a child who inherits a defective copy from both parents is likely to have a genetic disorder. In Figure 1-15, we can see how this works. 15 #129 I-2). If one of these great-great-grandparents had a mutant gene for CD73, then it 04/01/14 could have been passed down over the generations to both 05/01/14 Benge’s mother and 05/12/14 father (follow the red arrows).
In the case of the pea plant, there is a gene that encodes an enzyme required to make the purple pigment in the cells of a flower. Tatum and Beadle’s breakthrough became known as the one-gene–oneenzyme hypothesis. You’ll see how they developed this hypothesis in Chapter 6. What is the physical nature of the gene? Are genes composed of protein, nucleic acid, or some other substance? In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty offered the first compelling experimental evidence that genes are made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
An Introduction to Genetic Analysis by Anthony J.F. Griffiths, Susan R. Wessler, Sean B. Carroll, John Doebley