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Download e-book for iPad: Advances in Speech Coding by Bishnu S., Vladimir Cuperman and Allen Gersho, eds. Atal

By Bishnu S., Vladimir Cuperman and Allen Gersho, eds. Atal

ISBN-10: 146136437X

ISBN-13: 9781461364375

ISBN-10: 1461532663

ISBN-13: 9781461532668

Speech coding has been an ongoing region of study for numerous a long time, but the extent of task and curiosity during this zone has improved dramatically within the final numerous years. vital advances in algorithmic suggestions for speech coding have lately emerged and ideal development has been completed in generating top of the range speech at bit premiums as little as 4.8 kb/s. even though the complexity of the more moderen extra subtle algorithms drastically exceeds that of older equipment (such as ADPCM), modern-day strong programmable sign processor chips enable speedy expertise move from study to product improvement and allow many new reasonably priced functions of speech coding. particularly, low bit cost voice know-how is converging with the desires of the quickly evolving electronic telecom­ munication networks. The IEEE Workshop on Speech Coding for Telecommunications was once held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from September five to eight, 1989. the target of the workshop used to be to supply a discussion board for dialogue of contemporary advancements and destiny instructions in speech coding. The workshop attracted over one hundred thirty researchers from numerous international locations and its technical software incorporated fifty one papers.

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In the decoder, the appropriate value is extracted from the extended gain codebook according to the received gain index. As illustrated in Figure 1, the best offset vector f (n) from the lattice-offset codebook is summed with the best shape-gain vector Y (n) to produce Y * (n ): y* (n) ::;: Y (n) + f (n) (1) The best shape-gain-offset vector Y * (n) is now fed into the gain and synthesis modules, and influences the related backward adapters. The search for the best offset vector is performed after the search for the best shape-gain vector has been completed, thus we already have T'\kmi,,' gimila and Yjmi,,' which are the best sign, gain and shape vector, respectively, where their indices are given by the subscripts.

Currently, several coding techniques can produce high-quality speech at 16 kb/s. These techniques include Code-Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) [1], Multi-Pulse Linear Predictive Coding (MPLPC) [2], Adaptive Predictive Coding (APC) [3], Adaptive Transform Coding (ATC) [4], and Sub-Band Coding (SBC) combined with ADPCM [5], etc. However, all of them require a large coding delay - typically 40 to 60 ms - to achieve high-quality speech. While a large delay is necessary for these coders to buffer enough speech to exploit the redundancy, the delay is undesirable in many applications, especially when echo cancellation is involved.

Figure 5 shows the average segmental SNR and perceptual SNR for male and female speakers as a function of average bit rate. Detailed MOS measurements were not performed. However, informal listening tests confirm the monotonic relationship between speech quality and average bit rate. Transients while switching between the three modes could not be perceived. This is also illustrated by an example in Figure 6. The algorithm performance for various line error rates has been tested, and the results indicates that the VBR-LD-CElP extended and reduced modes degrade under channel errors not more than the nominal 16 kbitls LD-CElP coder does.

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Advances in Speech Coding by Bishnu S., Vladimir Cuperman and Allen Gersho, eds. Atal

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