By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)
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This lecture covers the basics of unfold spectrum modulation, which might be outlined as any modulation approach that calls for a transmission bandwidth a lot more than the modulating sign bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating sign. After reviewing simple electronic modulation options, the primary types of unfold spectrum modulation are defined.
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Additional resources for Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 76
The problem is considered in terms of so-called Gaussian optics. A focusing effect is characteristic of arbitrary nonuniform fields. In the general case, charged particle beams passing through the fields are not only focused, but also deflected. If we identify the axial trajectory in the beam, strictly speaking, it will be curved. However, the electron lens proper is a system with a straight axis. Further consideration of the problem will be based on the straight axis concept, which considerably simplifies the lens theory.
This procedure permits one to get an approximate solution, the accuracy of which is high enough if the number of intervals is large. However, this approach involves solutions of numerous algebraic equations that take much time and effort. There are other ways of approximating surface charge density, including bilinear or spline approximation. The charge density may be approximated with allowance for the surface geometry distincton (angles), which reduces the order of the set of equations. A symmetry of potential distribution can also facilitate the solution of the problem.
The aberration broadening depends on the shape of the beam, which in turn is generally determined by the aperture. The aberration blurring is, therefore, usually expressed as a polynomial in x , y coordinates in the object z = zo and aperture ( z = z B )planes, respectively (Fig. 7). The linearly independent solutions x , ( ~and ) x,,(~)then have the form shown in Fig. 8, which satisfies the following conditions in the object and aperture planes. 8. Linearly independent solutions x y ( z )and x,(z) satisfying the conditions of Eqs.
Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 76 by Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)