By Ladislaus Marton
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This lecture covers the basics of unfold spectrum modulation, that are outlined as any modulation procedure that calls for a transmission bandwidth a lot more than the modulating sign bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating sign. After reviewing simple electronic modulation options, the imperative varieties of unfold spectrum modulation are defined.
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J. (1966). Nature (London)212, 29. , Crick, F. H. , and Wyckoff, H. W. (1958). Acta Crystallogr. 11, 199. Lake, J. A. (1972). I n “Optical Transforms” (H. ), p. 153. Academic Press, New York. Lenz, F. (1965). In “Quantitative Electron Microscopy” (G. F. Bahr and E. H. ), p. 70. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland. Len& F. (1970). Lect. Inr. Summer Sch. , Erice, April, 1970. Lipson, H. (1972). ” Academic Press, New York. Markham, R. (1968). Methods Yirol. 4, 503. Marton, L. L. (1965). I n “Quantitative Electron Microscopy” (G.
For a fixed defocusing Af of the objective lens the spatial frequencies in correspondence with which the CTF gives maximal contrast are those that satisfy the equation 271 II - W ( v )= ( 2 n - 1 ) fl 2 with n a whole number. 24 G . DONELLI AND L. PAOLETTI Figure 5 shows the curves corresponding to Eq. (64) for some values of n along with the curves corresponding to the zero contrast values. For a given defocusing, the contrast on the image changes sign when the C T F passes through its zero values.
The corresponding diffraction pattern, would be centrosymmetric. The phase modulations can be partially avoided using such techniques as the “optical sandwich” (Harburn and Ranniko, 1971), which allow for the elimination of phase effects due to variations in the thickness of the plate glass or of the emulsion. The phase effects due to microdefects cannot be eliminated, however, and they thus represent a constant noise component present on the optical transform of an electron image. , 1971) scattering centers that diffuse the coherent incident light with random phase angles; the plate can thus be considered as a random distribution of spherical wave sources whose relative phase differences are such that any value from 0 to 2n is equally probable.
Advances in Electronics and Electron Phisics. Vol. 43 by Ladislaus Marton