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Read e-book online A World of States of Affairs PDF

By D. M. Armstrong

ISBN-10: 0521589487

ISBN-13: 9780521589482

During this very important examine D. M. Armstrong bargains a entire process of analytical metaphysics that synthesizes but additionally develops his considering over the last two decades. Armstrong's research, which recognizes the "logical atomism" of Russell and Wittgenstein, makes evidence (or states of affairs, because the writer calls them) the basic materials of the area, interpreting houses, family, numbers, sessions, danger and necessity, inclinations, motives and legislation. it's going to entice a large readership in analytical philosophy.

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Mill, however, says that such an act is justified by the happiness that it produces. One must determine that the lie is the possible course of action that will produce the greatest balance of happiness, but Mill does not rule out the act by virtue of it being a lie. Several criticisms are often made against utilitarianism, and Mill sought to overcome many of them. Two are of particular interest here. First, many suggest that utilitarianism promotes the more base side of human nature. Utilitarians generally hold that one’s happiness is merely the difference between one’s pleasures and one’s pains.

In short, only with an absolute sovereign, can humans live together peacefully in this world. 34 SWINDAL AND SPURGIN Hobbes’s theory changes the course of ethics. Ethics is, simply, whatever the sovereign says it is. The sovereign receives his right to rule and make laws through the consent of the governed people. When they give their consent, they agree to do whatever the sovereign wishes. Until that time, there is no moral authority over humans. Once the social contract is made, however, the sovereign has sole moral authority.

Although sentiments are the source of moral judgments, sympathy drives the sentiments. We have a natural sympathy for other humans. The closer another person is, the stronger one’s sympathy for that person. One feels a stronger sympathy for one’s family than for a stranger in another country, yet one still has a fellow-feeling even for humans one has never met. As I write this, I hear news accounts of a terrible earthquake in India that killed thousands of people. Although I know no one in India, my sympathy is engaged by the news and I feel saddened by the loss of fellow humans.

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A World of States of Affairs by D. M. Armstrong

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